SharePoint 2010 offers the following workflows out of the box, ready to be used.

Workflow Description
Approval Routes a document for approval. Approvers can approve or reject the document, reassign the approval task, or request changes to the document.
Three State Track the status of a list item through three states (phases). It can be used to manage business processes that require organisations to track a high volume of issues or items, such as customer support issues, sales leads, or project tasks. For example, the three states for a project task could be, Not Started, In Progress, and Finished.
Collect Feedback Routes a document for review. Reviewers can provide feedback, which is compiled and sent to the document owner when the workflow has completed.
Collect Signatures Gathers signatures needed to complete an Office document. This workflow can be started only from within an Office client.
Disposition Approval Manages document expiration and retention by allowing participants to decide whether to retain or delete expired documents.
Group Approval Similar to the Approval workflow, but uses a designated document library and offers a personalised view of the approval process(es) in which a user is participating. This workflow provides a hierarchical organisation chart from which to select the approvers and allows the approvers to use a stamp control instead of a signature. This solution was designed specifically for East Asian Markets.
Transition Management Manages document translation by creating copies of the document to be translated and assigning translation tasks to translators.
Issue Tracking Manages the issue tracking process by creating tasks for Active issues assigned to users who own to a given issue. When the task related to an issue is complete hence resolving the issue, the creator of the issue is assigned a review task so that the issue can be closed.

* Information currently varies over which workflows are available out of the box in SharePoint Server 2010. As development progresses this table will be updated.